The Science

What is Cannabidiol (CBD oil)

You may ask “what is Cannabidiol oil”? Cannabidiol oil is also known as CBD Oil. CBD oil has been a hot topic over the last few years and is receiving more attention within the media after studies have published research highlighting the positive effects of CBD oil on health. The uses of CBD oil have also been highlighted by the growing number of celebrities and athletes using the oil in aiding their health and recovery from extreme schedules. Recently UFC fighter Nate Diaz in his press conference after the UFC 202 Connor McGregor fight discussed using CBD oil in a vaporising method to aid his recovery.

CDB oil can be ingested using different methods; vaporising, consuming it in its oil form or incorporating it with food. To gain optimum benefits from the CBD, you should ingest the oil by either consuming it as it is or incorporating it with your food.

Cannabinoid is a blanket term covering a family of complex chemicals; there are more than 80+ active cannabinoid chemicals in a marijuana plant. The most notable cannabinoid is the phytocannabinoids tetrahydrocannabinol(THC), the primary psychoactive compound found in marijuana cannabis. A more traditional method of gaining benefits from cannabinoids is to smoke marijuana cannabis. Contrary to popular belief therapeutic levels cannot be reached through smoking alone as the molecules of the cannabis plant are altered when the plant is heated. Cannabidiol (CBD) is another major phytocannabinoid found in the marijuana cannabis plant and is linked to the health benefits. Each of the isolated phytocannabinoid found in cannabis exhibit varied effects.

Scientists have found the Endo-cannabinoids system located in the brain and throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems consisting of neuromodulatory lipidsand theirreceptors. The endo-cannabinoid system has a vast array of functions in our bodies, including helping to control brain and nerve activity (memory and pain), energy metabolism, heart function, the immune system, and even reproduction.

Cannabinoids work by interacting with endo-cannabinoids system CB1 and CB2 receptors found in cells in the brain and body. CB1 Receptors are found on neurons and glial cells in various parts of the brain and nervous system. CB2 Receptors are found in the bodies immune system.

Cannabidiol (CBD) does not produce euphoria or intoxication effect unlike the main psychoactive cannabinoid chemical tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The euphoric effects of THC are caused by its activation of CB1 receptors, whereas when CBD binds to these CB1 receptors it produces little to no effect because CBD has a very low affinity to the CB1 receptors. CBD acts as an antagonist at both CB1 and CB2 receptors. There is a growing body of research suggesting that CBD acts on other brain signalling systems, and this is an important contribution to its therapeutic effects and health benefits.

There is also a third family of cannabinoid receptors known as GPR, and the most notable receptor is GPR55. Less is known about these GPR receptors, however researchers are investigating them to see if they can lead to effective treatment of cancer.

References:

A brief history of cannabinoid and endocannabinoid pharmacology as inspired by the work of British scientists, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Endocannabinoid Research Group, Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, TRENDS in Pharmacological Sciences. 01.10.2006, Review, Science Direct.

Fundacion-canna.es/en/endocannabinoid-system

Unitedpatientsgroup.com/resources/methods-of-consumption

Reset.me/story/beginners-guide-to-the-endocannabinoid-system/

Zamnesia.com/content/260-cbd-thc-cbg-exploring-cannabinoids

drugwarfacts.org/cms/medicinal_cannabis#conditions

southerncannabis.org/medical-marijuana/lower-suicide-rates-legal

huffingtonpost.com/2015/02/06/marijuana-depression_n_6622126.html

epilepsycolorado.org/news-research/medical-marijuana/efco-report-to-the-community

washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2014/10/01/92-of-patients-say-medical-marijauna-works

medicalmarijuana411.com/medical-marijuana-seems-to-safely-help-chronic-pain-patients-study

Neelakantan et al. Distinct interactions of cannabidiol and morphine in three nociceptive behavioral models in mice. Behav Pharmacol. 26(3):304-14. (2015).

McAllister et al. The Antitumor Activity of Plant-Derived Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoids. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2015 Apr28.

Massi et al. 5-Lipoxygenase and anandamide hydrolase (FAAH) mediate the antitumor activity of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive cannabinoid. J Neurochem. 2008 Feb;104(4):1091-100.

Wilkinson et al. Impact of Cannabis Use on the Development of Psychotic Disorders. Curr Addict Rep. 2014 Jun 1;1(2):115-128.

Iseger and Bossong. A systematic review of the antipsychotic properties of cannabidiol in humans. Schizophr Res. 162(1-3):153-61. (2015).

Guimaraes et al. Antianxiety effect of cannabidiol in the elevated plus-maze. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 100:558–559 (1990).

Lemos et al. Involvement of the prelimbic prefrontal cortex on cannabidiol-induced attenuation of contextual conditioned fear in rats. Behav Brain Res 207:105–111(2010).

Das et al. Cannabidiol enhances consolidation of explicit fear extinction in humans. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2013 Apr;226(4):781-92.

Campos et al. Involvement of serotonin-mediated neurotransmission in the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter on cannabidiol chronic effects in panic-like responses in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2013 Mar;226(1):13-24.

Katsidoni et al. Cannabidiol inhibits the reward-facilitating effect of morphine: involvement of 5-HT1A receptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus. Addict Biol. 2013;18(2):286–96.

Ren et al. Cannabidiol, a nonpsychotropic component of cannabis, inhibits cue-induced heroin seeking and normalizes discrete mesolimbic neuronal disturbances. J Neurosci. 2009;29(47):14764–9.

Cannabinoid Benefits / Cannabidiol CBD Oil Benefits

You may be thinking, “what are the benefits of CBD oil on my health?” In recent years, CBD oil has been the deliberation of many research studies across the world. There are many studies highlighting the positive effects of CBD oil as a treatment for health conditions such as epilepsy, chronic pain, cancer, depression, Alzheimer’s and many others. There has been extensive research since the CB1 and CB2 receptors were discovered to bind with cannabis cannabinoids.

The endo-cannabinoid system consists of a network of receptors (CB1 and CB2) in the body that bind with cannabinoids. It has been discovered that cannabinoids are produced within the body but another source of cannabinoids is the marijuana plant. The marijuana plant consists of over 80+ cannabinoids and the prominent two within the plant are (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). It is believed CBD acts as an antagonist against both CB1 and CB2 receptors, therefore inhibiting the physiological action of unhealthy cells that bind to these receptors.

CBD oil has been found to have a positive effect on the condition epilepsy. Research has shown that CBD oil benefits people and children with severe forms of epilepsy by reducing seizures. Many studies have demonstrated positive outcomes with patients taking CBD oil with less than 0.3% THC. 60% of children achieved a reduction of 50+% in the number of seizures they experienced. 10% of children became seizure free after consuming the CBD in oil form.

Early research studies have shown CBD Oil can have a positive effect on the fight against cancer. Tests have indicated cannabis may aid current treatment methods and even destroy the walls of cancer cells. Research into CBD has shown it inhibits cell growth of human carcinoma breast cells. CBD has shown to support current treatment of chemotherapy by reducing nausea, pain, indigestion, and increasing appetite.

The brain is comprised of CB1 receptors and the euphoric effects of THC are caused by its activation of these CB1 receptors. When CBD binds to these CB1 receptors it produces little to no effect because CBD has a very low affinity to CB1 receptors. This is major reason why CBD has shown to have a positive effect on depression, Alzheimer’s and other neurological diseases. Many people that take CBD Oil on a regular basis experience clarity in thoughts and emotions and feel revitalised.

References:

A brief history of cannabinoid and endocannabinoid pharmacology as inspired by the work of British scientists, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Endocannabinoid Research Group, Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, TRENDS in Pharmacological Sciences. 01.10.2006, Review, Science Direct.

Welty et al. Cannabidiol: promise and pitfalls. Epilepsy Curr. 14(5):250-2. (2014).

Porter BE and Jacobson C. Report of a parent survey of cannabidiol-enriched cannabis use in pediatric treatment-resistant epilepsy. Epilepsy & Behavior 29 (2013) 574–577.

Press et al. Parental reporting of response to oral cannabis extracts for treatment of refractory epilepsy. Epilepsy & Behavior 45 (2015) 49–52.

Hussain et al. Perceived efficacy of cannabidiol-enriched cannabis extracts for treatment of pediatric epilepsy: A potential role for infantile spasms and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Epilepsy Behav. 2015 Apr 29. pii: S1525-5050(15)00157-2.

Gloss and Vickrey B. Cannabinoids for epilepsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 3:CD009270. (2014).

Martín-Moreno et al. Cannabidiol and Other Cannabinoids Reduce Microglial Activation In Vitro and In Vivo: Relevance to Alzheimer’s Disease. Molecular Pharmacology. 79(6):964-973. (2011).

Bergamaschi et al. Cannabidiol reduces the anxiety induced by simulated public speaking in treatment-naive social phobia patients. Neuropsychopharmacology 2011;36:1219–1226.

Nora D. Volkow et al, The Biology and Potential Therapeutic Effects of Cannabidiol. 2015 June 24

Sean D.McAllister et al. Cannabidiol as a novel inhibitor of Id-1 gene expression in aggressive breast cancer cells. 2004

Ward SJ et al. Cannabidiol inhibits paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain through 5-HT(1A) receptors without diminishing nervous system function or chemotherapy efficacy. 2014 feb, 171(3); 636-45.

KATHERINE ANN SCOTT et al. Enhancing the Activity of Cannabidiol and Other Cannabinoids In VitroThrough Modifications to Drug Combinations and Treatment Schedules. Anti Cancer research. 2013 Oct, vol 33.

Fundacion-canna.es/en/endocannabinoid-system

Unitedpatientsgroup.com/resources/methods-of-consumption

Reset.me/story/beginners-guide-to-the-endocannabinoid-system/

Zamnesia.com/content/260-cbd-thc-cbg-exploring-cannabinoids

drugwarfacts.org/cms/medicinal_cannabis#conditions

southerncannabis.org/medical-marijuana/lower-suicide-rates-legal

huffingtonpost.com/2015/02/06/marijuana-depression_n_6622126.html

epilepsycolorado.org/news-research/medical-marijuana/efco-report-to-the-community

washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2014/10/01/92-of-patients-say-medical-marijauna-works

medicalmarijuana411.com/medical-marijuana-seems-to-safely-help-chronic-pain-patients-study

Moreno et al. Targeting CB2-GPR55 receptor heteromers modulates cancer cell signaling.. 2014 aug 8; 289(32):21960-72.

Pertwee RG. The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin. Br J Pharmacol. 2008 Jan; 153(2): 199–215.

Martin-Santos et al. Acute effects of a single, oral dose of d9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) administration in healthy volunteers. Curr Pharm Des. 2012;18(32):4966-79.

Fusar-Poli et al. Distinct Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol on Neural Activation During Emotional Processing. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009;66(1):95-105

Winton-Brown et al. Modulation of Auditory and Visual Processing by Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol: an fMRI Study. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011 Jun;36(7):1340-8.

Bergamaschi et al. Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent. Curr Drug Saf. 2011 Sep 1;6(4):237-49.

Neelakantan et al. Distinct interactions of cannabidiol and morphine in three nociceptive behavioral models in mice. Behav Pharmacol. 26(3):304-14. (2015).

McAllister et al. The Antitumor Activity of Plant-Derived Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoids. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2015 Apr28.

Massi et al. 5-Lipoxygenase and anandamide hydrolase (FAAH) mediate the antitumor activity of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive cannabinoid. J Neurochem. 2008 Feb;104(4):1091-100.

Wilkinson et al. Impact of Cannabis Use on the Development of Psychotic Disorders. Curr Addict Rep. 2014 Jun 1;1(2):115-128.

Iseger and Bossong. A systematic review of the antipsychotic properties of cannabidiol in humans. Schizophr Res. 162(1-3):153-61. (2015).

Guimaraes et al. Antianxiety effect of cannabidiol in the elevated plus-maze. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 100:558–559 (1990).

Lemos et al. Involvement of the prelimbic prefrontal cortex on cannabidiol-induced attenuation of contextual conditioned fear in rats. Behav Brain Res 207:105–111(2010).

Das et al. Cannabidiol enhances consolidation of explicit fear extinction in humans. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2013 Apr;226(4):781-92.

Campos et al. Involvement of serotonin-mediated neurotransmission in the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter on cannabidiol chronic effects in panic-like responses in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2013 Mar;226(1):13-24.

Katsidoni et al. Cannabidiol inhibits the reward-facilitating effect of morphine: involvement of 5-HT1A receptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus. Addict Biol. 2013;18(2):286–96.

Ren et al. Cannabidiol, a nonpsychotropic component of cannabis, inhibits cue-induced heroin seeking and normalizes discrete mesolimbic neuronal disturbances. J Neurosci. 2009;29(47):14764–9.

Different Methods to Consume CBD

You may be wondering what the best method is to ingest CBD oil in order to get the best health benefits? There are four ways to ingest CBD and the method you use determines the effects it has on your mind and body. The four ways are smoking cannabis, vaporising CBD oil, incorporating CBD oil in food and consuming CBD in an oil form.

Traditionally, for centuries people have been smoking marijuana (cannabis). The popular belief being it has many health benefits, although it is mostly used for recreational purposes as well as the psychoactive effects people receive from smoking marijuana. One of the positives of smoking marijuana as an ingesting method is that it is minimally processed and normally smoked in its unprocessed form. Additionally, its effects are instant and the dosages can be easily regulated. One of the negatives is that smoke is harmful to lung health. The chemical structure of cannabis is altered when it is heated and burned; negating any therapeutic effects it may posses. The smoke from the marijuana is toxic to the body just as the smoke of any other substance would be. Lastly, burning and inhaling a substance creates oxidation within the body that is harmful.

A more recent way of ingesting CBD is via the vaporising method. This method heats the oil just below the combustion point and unlike smoking, the oil does not burn making this method of ingesting easier on the lungs. Vaporising also produces a clean inhalation avoiding any other chemical entering the body. However, vaporisers can be expensive and the equipment requires regular maintenance.

Eating is something we do everyday, making this a great way to incorporate CBD oil into your daily routine. This is an alternative method to smoking and vaporising and the effects may last longer. A downfall of this method of ingesting when incorporating CBD oil in food is it is very hard to judge the dosages; therefore making it difficult to judge how long the effects may last.

The most popular method in recent times is consuming CBD in an oil form. The oil is farmed and produced from cannabis sativa plants to create the ideal structure (high cannabidiol and low THC). This method ensures the user gains all of the best health benefits and has no psychoactive effect caused by THC. With this method of ingesting the amounts of oil can be easily judged and measured. This makes it an ideal way for children to ingest CBD as there are no psychoactive effects and the dosage can be monitored. A drawback of this method is the large amount of cannabis required in order to produce a high potency CBD oil (10+% CBD), making it fairly expensive to produce and consequently to buy.

References:

A brief history of cannabinoid and endocannabinoid pharmacology as inspired by the work of British scientists, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Endocannabinoid Research Group, Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, TRENDS in Pharmacological Sciences. 01.10.2006, Review, Science Direct.

Fundacion-canna.es/en/endocannabinoid-system

Unitedpatientsgroup.com/resources/methods-of-consumption

Reset.me/story/beginners-guide-to-the-endocannabinoid-system/

Zamnesia.com/content/260-cbd-thc-cbg-exploring-cannabinoids

drugwarfacts.org/cms/medicinal_cannabis#conditions

southerncannabis.org/medical-marijuana/lower-suicide-rates-legal

huffingtonpost.com/2015/02/06/marijuana-depression_n_6622126.html

epilepsycolorado.org/news-research/medical-marijuana/efco-report-to-the-community

washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2014/10/01/92-of-patients-say-medical-marijauna-works

medicalmarijuana411.com/medical-marijuana-seems-to-safely-help-chronic-pain-patients-study

Martin-Santos et al. Acute effects of a single, oral dose of d9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) administration in healthy volunteers. Curr Pharm Des. 2012;18(32):4966-79.

Fusar-Poli et al. Distinct Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol on Neural Activation During Emotional Processing. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009;66(1):95-105.

Winton-Brown et al. Modulation of Auditory and Visual Processing by Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol: an fMRI Study. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011 Jun;36(7):1340-8.

Endo-Cannabinoid system and receptors

What is the Endo-cannabinoid system? The Endo-cannabinoid system is a network of neuromodulatory lipidsand theirreceptors. Scientists have found that the Endo-cannabinoid system is located in the brain and throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems. The Endo-cannabinoid system has a vast array of functions in our bodies, including helping to control brain and nerve activity (memory and pain), energy metabolism, heart function, the immune system and even reproduction. Different parts of the human body have different receptor sites. The CB1 receptors are found at Brain, Lungs, Vascular system, Pancreas, Muscles, Reproductive system, Gastrointestinal tract, and Liver. The CB2 receptors are found at the Bones, Liver, Pancreas and Spleen.

British scientists have played a leading role in the long history of cannabinoid and endo-cannabinoid research. CB1 and CB2 receptors were first discovered in early research into cannabis. Shortly after the discovery, in 1990 the first CB1 receptor was cloned and in 1993 the first CB2 receptor was cloned. With the discovery of the CB1 receptors researchers started searching for natural occurring chemicals, which would affect the CB1 receptor. This is when Anandamide was discovered as the first naturally occurring endo-cannabinoid.

'Anandamide' was discovered in 1992 by Raphael Mechoulam’s group in collaboration with Pertwee’s group. Anandamide is described as “afatty acidneurotransmitterderived from the non-oxidative metabolism of eicosatetraenoic acid (arachidonic acid) an essential ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid.” Anandamidestudies are in progress to explore what role it plays in human behaviour, such as eating and sleep patterns, and pain relief.

The discovery of Anandamide derived from research into CB1 and CB2 receptors, as it was evident that a naturally occurring (endogenous) chemical would be found to affect these receptors. It was first discovered THC, a cannabis cannabinoid, affected these CB1 and CB2 receptors by producing psychoactive effects to humans.

The most abundant cannabinoid in marijuana is THC and it binds to CB1 receptors in the brain and reproductive organs. When the THC binds to these receptor sites it produces psychoactive effects by releasing dopamine in the brain, providing a sense of euphoria. In 1988 it was found THC was binding to CB1 receptor sites in the brain. THC is found to be an effective treatment in moderating symptoms of pain. CBD is the second most abundant cannabinoid found in the marijuana plant and binds to CB2 receptors in the immune system and is an antagonist at CB1 receptor sites. CBD has non-psychoactive effects and actually reduces the mental effects of THC. Research has shown CBD has greater medicinal properties, it is good for inflammation, migraines, arthritis, muscle spasms, epilepsy, and has shown to fights cancer cells.

In 2006 in Brazil it was discovered cannabidiol (CBD) was useful as an anti-psychotic drug in patients suffering from mental illnesses and disorders. In 2007 a researcher, Sean D. McAllister, confirmed that cannabidiol will inhibit the growth of breast cancer cells. In 2009 CBD’s discovery was made official and was classified as a distinct component of the cannabis plant alongside THC. In 2015 CBD oil was completely legal worldwide except in Canada where it’s still a controlled substance.

References:

A brief history of cannabinoid and endocannabinoid pharmacology as inspired by the work of British scientists, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Endocannabinoid Research Group, Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, TRENDS in Pharmacological Sciences. 01.10.2006, Review, Science Direct.

Fundacion-canna.es/en/endocannabinoid-system

Unitedpatientsgroup.com/resources/methods-of-consumption

Reset.me/story/beginners-guide-to-the-endocannabinoid-system/

Zamnesia.com/content/260-cbd-thc-cbg-exploring-cannabinoids

drugwarfacts.org/cms/medicinal_cannabis#conditions

southerncannabis.org/medical-marijuana/lower-suicide-rates-legal

huffingtonpost.com/2015/02/06/marijuana-depression_n_6622126.html

epilepsycolorado.org/news-research/medical-marijuana/efco-report-to-the-community

washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2014/10/01/92-of-patients-say-medical-marijauna-works

medicalmarijuana411.com/medical-marijuana-seems-to-safely-help-chronic-pain-patients-study

Martin-Santos et al. Acute effects of a single, oral dose of d9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) administration in healthy volunteers. Curr Pharm Des. 2012;18(32):4966-79.

Fusar-Poli et al. Distinct Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol on Neural Activation During Emotional Processing. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009;66(1):95-105.

Winton-Brown et al. Modulation of Auditory and Visual Processing by Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol: an fMRI Study. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011 Jun;36(7):1340-8.

What is Cannabidiol Oil (CBD Oil) (Part 2)

Hemp has been used for thousands of years in production of food, textiles, paper and other similar products. 'Hemp' refers to the industrial cannabis stalks and seeds used to produce such products. Marijuana cannabis refers to the flowers and buds used for medicinal and recreational purposes. The first significant difference between hemp and marijuana cannabis, is that the hemp plant is tall and narrow with no buds, whereas the marijuana cannabis plant is short, wide and is grown for its flowering buds. The resin glands on the marijuana cannabis buds and flowers are where the components containing THC are found. Hemp lacks the components to produce and store THC as it is not grown to cultivate buds. Although, Hemp and Marijuana cannabis originate from the cannabis sativa plant, products produced with these two plants affect the human body differently.

Industrial hemp contains up to 1.5% of THC, and marijuana cannabis can contain equal to and over 10% THC. Hemp can be specifically bred to contain high quantities of CBD. Marijuana cannabis is also an excellent source of CBD. However, when deciding between CBD oil from marijuana cannabis or a hemp source, the preferable and more logical option is to choose the hemp source due to the low amounts of THC and high amounts of CBD. THC is not legal and although both CBD and THC provide health benefits, the psychoactive effects of THC is a major drawback.

In 1998 GW Pharmaceuticals co-founder Geoffrey Guy convinced the British government, by using CBD rich marijuana plants GW Pharmaceuticals could produce a cannabis based medicine with little to no psychoactive effect (low THC). The British government licensed GW Pharmaceuticals to grow cannabis for use in clinical trials. GW Pharmaceuticals obtained CBD rich cannabis seeds from buying the genetic library of a Dutch based company HortaPharm, and the clinical trials began.

CBD rich cannabis plants have a history of being used to treat health problems. In the 19th century Queen Victoria used CBD rich cannabis for the treatment of menstrual cramps. Research studies on animals over the years have suggested CBD lessens anxiety and reduces seizures. However, CBD rich cannabis has not been readily available due to generations of breeding marijuana for maximum THC value to create the euphoria ‘effect’. Only in recent years have CBD rich strains of 20 to 1 CBD: THC been developed and produced.

In 2006 GW Pharmaceuticals launched the drug Sativex in Canada, a blend of 1:1 of CBD and THC administered as a sub-lingual spray. Sativex is now available in 11 countries as a treatment for spasticity related to multiple sclerosis. GW Pharmaceuticals are also supplying the FDA with Epidiolex, for there current ongoing study of cannabidiol. Epidiolex is a purified cannabis extract that contains 98% CBD with no trace of THC. The study is investigating the effects of Epidiolex on children who have treatment resistant epilepsy.

References:

A brief history of cannabinoid and endocannabinoid pharmacology as inspired by the work of British scientists, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Endocannabinoid Research Group, Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, TRENDS in Pharmacological Sciences. 01.10.2006, Review, Science Direct.

Pertwee RG. The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin. Br J Pharmacol. 2008 Jan; 153(2): 199–215.

Bergamaschi et al. Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent. Curr Drug Saf. 2011 Sep 1;6(4):237-49.

Neelakantan et al. Distinct interactions of cannabidiol and morphine in three nociceptive behavioral models in mice. Behav Pharmacol. 26(3):304-14. (2015).

McAllister et al. The Antitumor Activity of Plant-Derived Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoids. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2015 Apr28.

Massi et al. 5-Lipoxygenase and anandamide hydrolase (FAAH) mediate the antitumor activity of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive cannabinoid. J Neurochem. 2008 Feb;104(4):1091-100.

Wilkinson et al. Impact of Cannabis Use on the Development of Psychotic Disorders. Curr Addict Rep. 2014 Jun 1;1(2):115-128.

Iseger and Bossong. A systematic review of the antipsychotic properties of cannabidiol in humans. Schizophr Res. 162(1-3):153-61. (2015).

Guimaraes et al. Antianxiety effect of cannabidiol in the elevated plus-maze. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 100:558–559 (1990).

Lemos et al. Involvement of the prelimbic prefrontal cortex on cannabidiol-induced attenuation of contextual conditioned fear in rats. Behav Brain Res 207:105–111(2010).

Das et al. Cannabidiol enhances consolidation of explicit fear extinction in humans. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2013 Apr;226(4):781-92.

Campos et al. Involvement of serotonin-mediated neurotransmission in the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter on cannabidiol chronic effects in panic-like responses in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2013 Mar;226(1):13-24.

Katsidoni et al. Cannabidiol inhibits the reward-facilitating effect of morphine: involvement of 5-HT1A receptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus. Addict Biol. 2013;18(2):286–96.

Ren et al. Cannabidiol, a nonpsychotropic component of cannabis, inhibits cue-induced heroin seeking and normalizes discrete mesolimbic neuronal disturbances. J Neurosci. 2009;29(47):14764–9.