What is Cannabidiol Oil (CBD Oil) (Part 2)

Hemp has been used for thousands of years in production of food, textiles, paper and other similar products. 'Hemp' refers to the industrial cannabis stalks and seeds used to produce such products. Marijuana cannabis refers to the flowers and buds used for medicinal and recreational purposes. The first significant difference between hemp and marijuana cannabis, is that the hemp plant is tall and narrow with no buds, whereas the marijuana cannabis plant is short, wide and is grown for its flowering buds. The resin glands on the marijuana cannabis buds and flowers are where the components containing THC are found. Hemp lacks the components to produce and store THC as it is not grown to cultivate buds. Although, Hemp and Marijuana cannabis originate from the cannabis sativa plant, products produced with these two plants affect the human body differently.

Industrial hemp contains up to 1.5% of THC, and marijuana cannabis can contain equal to and over 10% THC. Hemp can be specifically bred to contain high quantities of CBD. Marijuana cannabis is also an excellent source of CBD. However, when deciding between CBD oil from marijuana cannabis or a hemp source, the preferable and more logical option is to choose the hemp source due to the low amounts of THC and high amounts of CBD. THC is not legal and although both CBD and THC provide health benefits, the psychoactive effects of THC is a major drawback.

In 1998 GW Pharmaceuticals co-founder Geoffrey Guy convinced the British government, by using CBD rich marijuana plants GW Pharmaceuticals could produce a cannabis based medicine with little to no psychoactive effect (low THC). The British government licensed GW Pharmaceuticals to grow cannabis for use in clinical trials. GW Pharmaceuticals obtained CBD rich cannabis seeds from buying the genetic library of a Dutch based company HortaPharm, and the clinical trials began.

CBD rich cannabis plants have a history of being used to treat health problems. In the 19th century Queen Victoria used CBD rich cannabis for the treatment of menstrual cramps. Research studies on animals over the years have suggested CBD lessens anxiety and reduces seizures. However, CBD rich cannabis has not been readily available due to generations of breeding marijuana for maximum THC value to create the euphoria ‘effect’. Only in recent years have CBD rich strains of 20 to 1 CBD: THC been developed and produced.

In 2006 GW Pharmaceuticals launched the drug Sativex in Canada, a blend of 1:1 of CBD and THC administered as a sub-lingual spray. Sativex is now available in 11 countries as a treatment for spasticity related to multiple sclerosis. GW Pharmaceuticals are also supplying the FDA with Epidiolex, for there current ongoing study of cannabidiol. Epidiolex is a purified cannabis extract that contains 98% CBD with no trace of THC. The study is investigating the effects of Epidiolex on children who have treatment resistant epilepsy.

 

References:

A brief history of cannabinoid and endocannabinoid pharmacology as inspired by the work of British scientists, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Endocannabinoid Research Group, Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, TRENDS in Pharmacological Sciences. 01.10.2006, Review, Science Direct.

Pertwee RG. The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin. Br J Pharmacol. 2008 Jan; 153(2): 199–215.

Bergamaschi et al. Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent. Curr Drug Saf. 2011 Sep 1;6(4):237-49.

Neelakantan et al. Distinct interactions of cannabidiol and morphine in three nociceptive behavioral models in mice. Behav Pharmacol. 26(3):304-14. (2015).

McAllister et al. The Antitumor Activity of Plant-Derived Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoids. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2015 Apr28.

McAllister et al. The Antitumor Activity of Plant-Derived Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoids. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2015 Apr28.

Massi et al. 5-Lipoxygenase and anandamide hydrolase (FAAH) mediate the antitumor activity of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive cannabinoid. J Neurochem. 2008 Feb;104(4):1091-100.

Wilkinson et al. Impact of Cannabis Use on the Development of Psychotic Disorders. Curr Addict Rep. 2014 Jun 1;1(2):115-128.

Iseger and Bossong. A systematic review of the antipsychotic properties of cannabidiol in humans. Schizophr Res. 162(1-3):153-61. (2015).

Guimaraes et al. Antianxiety effect of cannabidiol in the elevated plus-maze. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 100:558–559 (1990).

Lemos et al. Involvement of the prelimbic prefrontal cortex on cannabidiol-induced attenuation of contextual conditioned fear in rats. Behav Brain Res 207:105–111(2010).

Das et al. Cannabidiol enhances consolidation of explicit fear extinction in humans. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2013 Apr;226(4):781-92.

Campos et al. Involvement of serotonin-mediated neurotransmission in the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter on cannabidiol chronic effects in panic-like responses in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2013 Mar;226(1):13-24.

Katsidoni et al. Cannabidiol inhibits the reward-facilitating effect of morphine: involvement of 5-HT1A receptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus. Addict Biol. 2013;18(2):286–96.

Ren et al. Cannabidiol, a nonpsychotropic component of cannabis, inhibits cue-induced heroin seeking and normalizes discrete mesolimbic neuronal disturbances. J Neurosci. 2009;29(47):14764–9.

 

 

×
Sign up

Get 10% off your first order

Stay up to date with our lastest news and products

Please confirm you would like to receive marketing emails about CBD oil Products